Is Tolerance Good or Bad for Growth?

Reprint No. 2012:1

Author(s): Niclas Berggren and Mikael ElinderYear: 2012 Title: Public Choice Volume (No.): 150 (1-2) Pages: 283–308
Online article (restrictions may apply)
Preliminary version

We investigate how tolerance, as measured by attitudes toward different types of neighbors, affects economic growth in a sample of 54 countries. Unlike previous studies, by Richard Florida and others, we find that tolerance toward homosexuals is negatively related to growth. For tolerance toward people of a different race, we do not find robust results, but the sign of the estimated coefficients is positive, suggesting that inclusion of people irrespective of race makes good use of productive capacity. We propose mechanisms to explain these divergent findings, which clarify why different kinds of tolerance may be of different economic importance.

Berggren, Niclas and Mikael Elinder (2012), "Is Tolerance Good or Bad for Growth?". Public Choice 150(1-2), 283–308.

Niclas Berggren


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Mikael Elinder


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In this book Andreas Bergh, Therese Nilsson, IFN and Lund University, and Daniel Waldenström, IFN and Paris School of Economics, France, review the latest research on the relationship between inequality and health. What does inequality mean for our health? Does increasing income inequality affect outcomes such as obesity, life expectancy and subjective well-being?


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