We study labor-market discrimination of individuals with “specific” characteristics in Italy. We conduct a field experiment in two Italian cities: Rome and Milan, by sending “fake” CVs to real ads. We find that there is a strong penalty for homosexuals, i.e., about 30 % less chance to be called back compared to a heterosexual male and even more so if they are highly skilled. On the other hand, we find no penalty for homosexual females. We also find a beauty premium for females only but this premium is much lower when the “pretty” woman is skilled.
Patacchini, Eleonora, Giuseppe Ragusa and Yves Zenou (2015),
"Unexplored Dimensions of Discrimination in Europe: Homosexuality and Physical Appearance".
Journal of Population Economics