2016

Lifetime versus Annual Tax-and-Transfer Progressivity: Sweden, 1968–2009

Reprint No. 2016:53

Author(s): Niklas Bengtsson, Bertil Holmlund and Daniel WaldenströmYear: 2016 Title: Scandinavian Journal of Economics Volume (No.): 118 (4) Pages: 619–645
Online article (restrictions may apply)


In this paper, we analyze the evolution of tax-and-transfer progressivity in Sweden over both annual and lifetime horizons. Using a rich micro panel covering the period 1968–2009, we calculate tax rates over a cohort's entire working life cycle. Our main finding is that taxes are considerably less progressive over the lifetime than in any single year. Social insurance transfers to transitory low-income earners account for most of this result. We offer a number of robustness checks of the measurement of lifetime incomes and progressivity, but none of them changes our overall findings.


Reference:
Bengtsson, Niklas, Bertil Holmlund and Daniel Waldenström (2016), "Lifetime versus Annual Tax-and-Transfer Progressivity: Sweden, 1968–2009". Scandinavian Journal of Economics 118(4), 619–645.

Daniel Waldenström

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