Working Paper No. 259

The Effects of R&D Externalities in a Spatial Model

This paper deals with the physical location of firms although other interpretations are also possible. It is a well-known fact that firms in certain industries tend to cluster. However, since you would expect competition to be more intense when goods are less diversified in a locational sense there must be some explanation to these observations which is not usually dealt with in standard economic theory. One striking example is of course the American west coast high-tech industry clustering in Silicon Valley, but others are not difficult to find. There is a broad range of possible explanations to these phenomena. The focus of this paper is to explore the possibilities to explain c1ustering in terms of external effects in the R&D process. This is done through the introduction of R&D investments into a version of the Hotelling spatial duopoly model. We consider only cost reducing innovations (i.e. process innovations). The investment decisions and the locational decisions are taken simultaneously. Then firms compete in prices, conditional on their choices in the first period. Marginal costs are reduced both through own investments and by spillovers from the competitor and these spillovers are decreasing in the distance between firms. The most surprising finding is that clustering will occur only if it is totally costless in terms of competition in the product market, that is, only when both firms act as unconstrained monopolists. Extending the model into an infinitely repeated game opens up the possibility to sustain locational equilibria characterized by clustering if the discount factor is large enough. This is so since the optimal collusive locational pattern implies at least some amount of c1ustering.

Sick of Inequality?

An Introduction to the Relationship between Inequality and Health

Sick of Inequality.jpg

In this book Andreas Bergh, Therese Nilsson, IFN and Lund University, and Daniel Waldenström, IFN and Paris School of Economics, France, review the latest research on the relationship between inequality and health. What does inequality mean for our health? Does increasing income inequality affect outcomes such as obesity, life expectancy and subjective well-being?


Seminars organized by IFN


To present ongoing research informal brown-bag seminars are held on Mondays at 11:30 am. This is an opportunity for IFN researchers to test ideas and results.

Academically oriented seminars are most of the time held on Wednesdays at 10 am. At these events researchers from IFN and other institutions present their research.

In addition, IFN organizes seminars open to the public. Topics for these are derived from the IFN research.

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