Working Paper No. 457

R&D and Foreign Sales in Multinationals: A Simultaneous Relationship?

Published: April 1996Pages: 29Keywords: R&D; Foreign Sales; Multinational EnterprisesJEL-codes: F23; O32

R&D and Foreign Sales in Multinationals: A Simultaneous Relationship? Gunnar Fors and Roger Svensson

This paper analyzes the simultaneous relationship between R&D and foreign sales in Swedish multinational enterprises in the manufacturing sector. We argue that this two-way relationship should especially apply to multinationals based in small open economies due to the firms' high dependence on foreign markets. The only previous study addressing this issue used data on multinationals originating from the United States, a country with a large domestic market, and it did not find evidence of the hypothesized simultaneous relationship. Our empirical results suggest a positive and significant effect in both directions.

Roger Svensson


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Sick of Inequality?

An Introduction to the Relationship between Inequality and Health

Sick of Inequality.jpg

In this book Andreas Bergh, Therese Nilsson, IFN and Lund University, and Daniel Waldenström, IFN and Paris School of Economics, France, review the latest research on the relationship between inequality and health. What does inequality mean for our health? Does increasing income inequality affect outcomes such as obesity, life expectancy and subjective well-being?


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