Research surveys

Growth Through Research and Development – What Does the Research Literature Say?

In 2004, the public sector in the OECD countries spent approximately USD 190 billion on research and development (R&D), which corresponds to almost 30 per cent of all the R&D (USD 650 billion) conducted in these countries. If we examine who carries out R&D, we can see that the private sector accounts for 68 per cent, Government research institutes (laboratories) for 12 percent, universities for 17 per cent and other nonprofit organisations for 3 per cent. Here there are cases where the Government funds R&D in the business/industrial sector and vice versa, but in Europe the overwhelming majority of Government funding goes to Government-controlled universities and research institutes.


Reference:

Svensson, Roger (2008), "Growth Through Research and Development – What Does the Research Literature Say?". Vinnova Report VR 2008:19. Stockholm: Vinnova.

Roger Svensson

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roger.svensson@ifn.se

Interdisciplinary European Studies

The European Union and the Return of the Nation State

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This book explores the complex and ever-changing relationship between the European Union and its member states. The recent surge in tension in this relationship has been prompted by the actions of some member state governments as they question fundamental EU values and principles and refuse to implement common decisions seemingly on the basis of narrowly defined national interests.

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