Working Paper No. 496

Global Income Divergence, Trade and Industrialisation: The Geography of Growth Take-Offs

Published: February, 1998Pages: 45Keywords: Growth Take-Off, Industrial Revolution, Economic Geography, Endogenous Growth, Trade JEL-codes: F01, F43, O19, N13

Global Income Divergence, Trade and Industrialisation: The Geography of Growth Take-Offs Richard E. Baldwin, Philippe Martin and Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano


This paper takes a step towards formalizing the theoretical interconnections among four post-Industrial Revolution phenomena - the industrialization and growth take-off of rich "northern" nations, massive global income divergence, and rapid trade expansion. Specifically, we present a stages-of-growth model in which the four phenomena are jointly endogenous and all are triggered by a gradual fall in the cost of doing business internationally. In the first stage, while trade costs are high, industry is dispersed and growth is low. In the second stage, the north industrializes rapidly, growth takes off and the south diverges. In the third stage, high growth becomes self sustaining. The model shows under which conditions, in a fourth stage, the south can quickly industrialize and converge.

Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets

An Overall Perspective

Pages-from-2019-Calmfors-Gassen---Integrating-Immigrants-into-the-Nordic-Labour-Markets.gif

Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden face similar problems of integrating large groups of immigrants, especially low-educated ones from outside the EU, into their labour markets. In this volume, edited by Lars Calmfors, IFN, and Nora Sánchez Gassen in cooperation with researchers from across the Nordic Region analyse how labour market integration of immigrants can be promoted. 

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