Working Paper No. 839

Graded Children – Evidence of Longrun Consequences of School Grades from a Nationwide Reform

Published: June 8, 2010Pages: 52Keywords: School policy; Grades; Educational attainment; Adult earnings; Family background; Difference-in-differencesJEL-codes: I21; I28; J13; J24

Graded Children – Evidence of Longrun Consequences of School Grades from a Nationwide Reform Anna Sjögren


Swedish elementary school children stopped receiving written end of year report cards following a grading reform in 1982. Gradual implementation of the reform creates an opportunity to investigate the effects of being graded on adult educational attainments and earnings for children in the cohorts born 1954–1974, using a difference-in-differences strategy. Accounting for municipal time trends and tracing out reform dynamics, there is some evidence that being graded increases girls’ years of schooling, but has no significant average effect on boys. Analysis of effects by family background suggests that receiving grades increases the probability of high school graduation for boys and girls with compulsory school educated parents. Sons of university graduates, however, earn less and are less likely to get a university degree if they were graded in elementary school.

Interdisciplinary European Studies

Trust in the European Union in Challenging Times

2018-Trust-in-the-European-Union-by-Oxelheim.jpg

This is the first book in the Interdisciplinary European Studies collection. This volume provides an interdisciplinary perspective on trust in the EU from the vantage point of political science, law and economics. Lars Oxelheim, Lund University and affiliated to IFN, is one of the authors.

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To present ongoing research informal brown-bag seminars are held on Mondays at 11:30 am. This is an opportunity for IFN researchers to test ideas and results.

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In addition, IFN organizes seminars open to the public. Topics for these are derived from the IFN research.

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