Working Paper No. 1035

Firm Productivity and Carbon Leakage: A Study of Swedish Manufacturing Firms

Published: August 12, 2014Pages: 31Keywords: Firm heterogeneity; Carbon leakage; Energy; ImportingJEL-codes: D21; F18

Firm Productivity and Carbon Leakage: A Study of Swedish Manufacturing Firms Shon Ferguson and Mark Sanctuary

This paper examines the intensive and extensive margins of carbon leakage. The analysis uses an increase in the Swedish electricity price to identify the impact on imports at the firm and product level. Our model of heterogenous firms predicts that higher domestic electricity prices lead firms to substitute towards imports of electricity-intense products.

We test the predictions of the model using detailed firm-level data for Swedish manufacturing that includes the firm’s electricity use, their electricity cost, and the products they import, over the years 2001-2006 inclusive.

We find evidence that the impact of the electricity price is mostly a story about the extensive margin of firm imports: firms with a certain productivity respond to higher electricity prices by substituting towards relatively electricity-intense imported products. We do not find much support of an intensive margin effect, i.e. for the notion that an electricity price increase induces a broad response across firms in a given sector. Our empirical results identify the magnitude of the impact of the electricity price increase on imports and our findings characterize the firms that could be at risk to leakage.

Shon Ferguson


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Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets

An Overall Perspective


Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden face similar problems of integrating large groups of immigrants, especially low-educated ones from outside the EU, into their labour markets. In this volume, edited by Lars Calmfors, IFN, and Nora Sánchez Gassen in cooperation with researchers from across the Nordic Region analyse how labour market integration of immigrants can be promoted. 

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