Working Paper No. 1133

Who Becomes a Politican?

Published: September 15, 2016Pages: 58Keywords: Political Selection; Political Represenation; Family Background; CompetenceJEL-codes: H10; H70
Published version

Who Becomes a Politican? Ernesto Dal Bó, Frederico Finan, Olle Folke, Torsten Persson and Johanna Rickne

Can a democracy attract competent leaders, while attaining broad representation? Economic models suggest that free-riding incentives and lower opportunity costs give the less competent a comparative advantage at entering political life.

Also, if elites have more human capital, selecting on competence may lead to uneven representation. We examine patterns of political selection among the universe of municipal politicians in Sweden using extraordinarily rich data on competence traits and social background for the entire population.

We document four new facts:

  • First, politicians are on average signi cantly smarter and better leaders than the population they represent.
  • Second, the representation of social background, whether measured by intergenerational earnings or social class, is remarkably even.
  • Third, there is at best a weak tradeo in selection between competence and representation.
  • Fourth, both material and intrinsic motives matter in selection, as does screening by political parties.


Interdisciplinary European Studies

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This book explores the complex and ever-changing relationship between the European Union and its member states. The recent surge in tension in this relationship has been prompted by the actions of some member state governments as they question fundamental EU values and principles and refuse to implement common decisions seemingly on the basis of narrowly defined national interests.

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