Working Paper No. 1160

Trends and Gradients in Top Tax Elasticities: Cross-country Evidence, 1900–2014

Published: March 27, 2017Pages: 74Keywords: Economic history; Income inequality; TaxationJEL-codes: D31; H21; H24; H26; N40
Published version

Trends and Gradients in Top Tax Elasticities: Cross-country Evidence, 1900–2014 Enrico Rubolino and Daniel Waldenström


We compile data spanning the period 1900–2014 and up to 30 countries to study long-run patterns in the tax elasticity of top incomes. Our results show that top tax elasticities vary tremendously over time; they were medium-to-low before 1950, virtually zero during the postwar era up to 1980 and have thereafter increased to unprecedented levels. We document a strong income gradient in tax response within the top, underlining the importance to study even small top groups separately. Several mechanisms are investigated. Tax-driven income shifting between wage and capital income is important in the very top. Wars, financial crises, and country-specific effects and trends have bearing on top elasticities whereas standard macroeconomic factors and indicators of “real responses” do not.

Daniel Waldenström

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