Working Paper No. 1256

Getting the First Job – Size and Quality of Ethnic Enclaves for Refugee Labor Market Entry

Published: December 5, 2018Pages: 25Keywords: Refugee immigrants; Ethnic enclave quality; Labor market outcomesJEL-codes: F22; J15; J60; R23

Getting the First Job – Size and Quality of Ethnic Enclaves for Refugee Labor Market Entry Johan Klaesson, Özge Öner and Dieter Pennerstorfer

This article analyses the relationship between the size and the quality of ethnic enclaves on immigrants’ labour market integration. Using exogenously defined grid cells to delineate neighbourhoods we find robust empirical evidence that the employment rate of the respective immigrant group in the vicinity (as a measure of enclave quality) facilitates labour market integration of new immigrants.

The influence of the overall employment rate and the share of co-nationals in the neighbourhood tend to be positive, but less robust. We thus conclude that the quality is more important than the size of the ethnic enclave in helping new immigrants finding jobs.

Özge Öner


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Johan Klaesson


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Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets

An Overall Perspective


Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden face similar problems of integrating large groups of immigrants, especially low-educated ones from outside the EU, into their labour markets. In this volume, edited by Lars Calmfors, IFN, and Nora Sánchez Gassen in cooperation with researchers from across the Nordic Region analyse how labour market integration of immigrants can be promoted. 

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