The Economics of the Service Sector


Research Reports and Articles

Maican, F., M. Orth, M. Roberts, and V. Anh Vuong (2020). The Dynamic Impact of Exporting on Firm R&D Investment, NBER Working Paper 27 986, CEPR Discussion Paper 15369, IFN Working Paper 1366.

Maican, F and M. Orth (2020). Determinants of Economies of Scope in Retail, CEPR Discussion Paper 15084.

Poutvaara, Panu and Henrik Jordahl (2020). Public sector outsourcing, IZA World of Labor, 65, 2020. Link 

Jordahl, Henrik and Lovisa Persson (2020). The end of a trend? Retraction of choice in Swedish elderly care, Journal of Economic Policy Reform

Wennström, Johan (2019). Marketized Education: How Regulatory Failure Undermined the Swedish School System. Journal of Education Policy. 

Henrekson, Magnus and Johan Wennström (2019). ”Post-Truth” Schooling and Marketized Education: Explaining the Decline in Sweden’s School Quality. Journal of Institutional Economics, 15 (5), 897–914. 

Wennström, Johan (2019). Interpreting Policy Convergence Between the Left and the Right: Essays on Education and Immigration. Doctoral Dissertation. Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences No. 760. Linköping: Linköping University.

Angelis, Jannis, Anna Häger Glenngård and Henrik Jordahl (2019). Management practices and the quality of primary care. Public Money & Management. Link

Andersson, Fredrik, Henrik Jordahl and Jens Josephson (2019). Outsourcing public services: Contractibility, cost, and quality. CESifo Economic Studies 65 (4), 349-372. Link

Jordahl, Henrik (2019). Perspectives on public sector outsourcing: Quasi-markets and prices, CESifo Economic Studies, 65 (4), 343-348.

Bergman, Mats, Henrik Jordahl and Sofia Lundberg (2018). Choice and competition in the welfare state: Home care as the ideal quasi-market. IFN Working Paper No. 1213. Link

Jordahl, Henrik and Lovisa Persson (2018). Exploring digital time measurement in the public sector: Labor productivity and service quality in home care. IFN Working Paper No. 1212. Link

Glenngård, Anna and Anders Anell (2018). Process measures or patient reported experience measures (PREMs) for comparing performance across providers? A study of measures related to access and continuity in Swedish primary care. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 19 (1), 23–32. Link 

Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel, (2018). Smart but unhappy: Independent-school competition and the wellbeing-efficiency trade-off in education. Economics of Education Review, 62, 66-81. Link

Wennström, Johan (2018). ’A plague on both your houses’: How left and right undermined moral motivation in the Swedish school system. Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, 120 (3-4), 415-434. Link

Backman, Mikaela, Johan Klaesson and  Özge Öner (2017). Innovation in the hospitality industry: Firm or location? Tourism Economics, 23 (8), 1591–1614. Link

Andersson, Ola and Tommy Andersson (2017). Timing and presentation effects in sequential auctions. Journal of Mechanism and Institution Design, 2 (1), 3955. Link

Wennström, Johan (2016). A left/right convergence on the new public management? The unintended power of diverse ideas. Critical Review, 29(34): 380403. Link

Lundborg, Per och Per Skedinger (2016). Employer attitudes towards refugee immigrants: Findings from a Swedish survey. International Labour Review, 155, 315–337.

Özge Öner and Johan Klaesson (2016). Location of leisure: The new economic geography of leisure services, Leisure Studies, 36 (2), 203–219. Link

Andersson, Ola , Jim Ingebretsen Carlson and Erik Wengström (2016). Differences attract: An experimental study of focusing in economic choice. IFN Working Paper No. 1145. Link

Wennström, Johan (2016). Marketized education: How regulatory failure undermined the Swedish school system. IFN Working Paper No. 1143. Link

Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel (2016). Retirement blues. IFN Working Paper No. 1114. Link. Published in Journal of Health Economics, 54 (July), 6678, 2017. Link

Böckerman, Petri, Per Skedinger and Roope Uusitalo (2016). Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: Evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data, IFN Working Paper No. 1105. LinkPublished in Labour Economics, 51, 4862. Link

Skedinger, Per (2016). Työmarkkinat Suomessa ja Ruotsissa – ruotsalainen näkökulma. Talous & Yhteiskunta, 2, 10–17.

Lindbeck, Assar, Mårten Palme and Mats Persson (2016). Sickness absence and local benefit cultures. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 118 (1), 49–78.

Glenngård, Anna Häger (2016). Experiences from introducing a quasi-market in Swedish primary care: Fulfillment of objectives and assessment of provider activities. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, 20 (1), 71–86

Skedinger, Per (2015). Employment effects of union-bargained minimum wages: Evidence from Sweden´s retail sector”, International Journal of Manpower, 36, 694–720.

Wennström, Johan (2015). New public management also came from the left: The case of Swedish primary and secondary education. IFN Working Paper No. 1087. Link

Håkanson, Christina, Erik Lindqvist and Jonas Vlachos (2015). Firms and skills: The evolution of worker sorting. IFN Working Paper No. 1072. Forthcoming in Journal of Human Resources.

Grönqvist, Erik and Erik Lindqvist (2015). The making of a manager: Evidence from military officer training. IFN Working Paper No. 1069. Published in Journal of Labor Economics, 34 (4), 869898, 2016. Link

Klaesson, Johan and Özge Öner (2015). Market reach for retail services. Review of Regional Studies, 44 (2), 153–176.

Angelis, Jannis and Henrik Jordahl (2015). Merciful yet effective elderly care performance management practices. Measuring Business Excellence, 19 (1), 6169.

Lundborg, Per and Per Skedinger (2014). Employer attitudes towards refugee immigrants. IFN Working Paper No. 1025. Published as Employer attitudes towards refugee immigrants: Findings from a Swedish survey, in International Labour Review, 155, 315–337.

Lundborg, Per and Per Skedinger (2014). Minimum wages and the integration of refugee immigrants. IFN Working Paper No. 1017.  

Edmark, Karin, Markus Frölich and Verena Wondratschek (2014). Sweden's school choice reform and equality of opportunity. Labour Economics, 30 (October), 129–142. Link

Angelis, Jannis (2014). Strategic management of global manufacturing networks. Production Planning and Control, 26 (13), 1162–1163

Elinder, Mikael and Lovisa Persson (2014). Property taxes, bounded rationality and house prices. IFN Working Paper No. 1029. Link. Published as House price responses to national property tax reform, in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 144 (December), 18–39, 2017. Link 

Andersson, Ola, Marieke Huysentruyt, Topi Miettinen and Ute Stephan (2014). Person-organization fit and incentives: A causal test. IFN Working Paper No.1010. Link. Forthcoming in Management Science. 

Skedinger, Per (2014). Effects of payroll taxes for young workers. Nordic Economic Policy Review, 4 (1), 125169. Link

Andersson, Ola, Håkan Holm, Jean-Robert Tyran and Erik Wengström (2013). Risking other people’s money: Experimental evidence on bonus schemes, competition, and altruism. IFN Working Paper No. 989. Link

Orth, Matilda och Florin Maican (2013). Entry regulations, product differentiation and determinants of market structure. IFN Workinig Paper No. 984. Forthcoming as Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure in International Economic ReviewLink

Wondratschek, Verena, Karin Edmark and Markus Frölich (2013). The short- and long-term effects of school choice on student outcomes – Evidence from a school choice reform in Sweden. IFN Working Paper No. 981. Published in Annals of Economics and Statistics, 111/112, 71102, 2013. Link

Andersson, Christer, Ola Andersson and Tommy Andersson (2013). Sealed bid auctions vs. ascending bid auctions: An experimental study. Review of Economic Design, 17 (1), 116.

Ola Andersson, Håkan J. Holm, Jean-Robert Tyran and Erik Wengström (2013). Deciding for others reduces loss aversion. IFN Working Paper No. 976. Forthcoming in Management ScienceLink 

Angelis, Jannis och Jelena Siraliova (2013). Sector specificity and process impact. Journal of International Business: Innovations, Psychology, Economics, 4 (1), 4352.

Linbeck, Assar and Mats Persson (2012). A continuous model of income insurance. Published in International Tax and Public Finance, 20 (6), 938-960, 2013. Link

Andersson, Tommy, Christer Andersson and Fredrik Andersson (2012). An empirical investigation of efficiency and price uniformity in competing auctions. Economics Letters, 116 (1), 99101. Link

Maican, Florin and Matilda Orth (2012). A Dynamic Analysis of Regulation and Productivity in Retail Trade. IFN Working Paper No. 939. Published in International Journal of Industrial Organization, 40, 67-80, 2016. (Winner of the IJIO Best Paper Award for the best paper in International Journal of Industrial Organization in 2016.) Link

Norbäck, Pehr-Johan, Jing-Lin Duanmu and Per Skedinger (2012). Employment protection and multinational enterprises: Theory and evidence from micro data. IFN Working Paper No. 935. Forthcoming in World Economy as Employment protection and FDI revisited: New evidence from micro data.

Böhlmark, Anders, Erik Grönqvist and Jonas Vlachos (2012). The headmaster ritual: The importance of management for school outcomes. IFN Working Paper No. 931. Link. Published in Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 118 (4), 912–940, 2016.  

Sahlgren, Gabriel H. (2012). Work ‘til you drop: Short- and longer-term health effects of retirement in Europe. IFN Working Paper No. 928. Link

Andersson, Ola, Cédric Argenton and Jörgen W. Weibull (2012). Robustness to strategic uncertainty. IFN Working Paper No. 910. Published in Games and Economic Behavior, 85 (May), 272288, 2014. Link

Maican, Florin and Matilda Orth (2012). Productivity dnamics and the role of 'big-box' entrants in retailing." IFN Working Paper No. 898. Published in Journal of Industrial Economics, 65 (2), 397438. Link

Niepel, Verena (2011). The importance of cognitive and social skills for the duration of unemployment. IFN Working Paper No. 871. Link

Pattacchini, Eleonora and Yves Zenou (2011). Neighborhood effects and parental involvement in the intergenerational transmission of education. Journal of Regional Science, 51 (5), 987–1013. Link

Elinder, Mikael and Henrik Jordahl (2011). Political preferences and public sector outsourcing. IFN Working Paper No. 877. Published in European Journal of Political Economy, 30, 4357, 2013. Link

Heyman, Fredrik and Per Skedinger (2011). Employment protection reform, enforcement in collective agreements and worker flows. IFN Working Paper No. 876. Published in Industrial Relations, 55, 662–704, 2016. Link

Andersson, Fredrik and Henrik Jordahl (2011). Outsourcing public services: Ownership, competition, quality and contracting. IFN Working Paper No. 874. Link

Skedinger, Per (2011). Effects of increasing minimum wages on employment and hours: Evidence from Sweden’s retail sector. IFN Working Paper No. 869. Published as Employment effects of union-bargained minimum wages: Evidence from Sweden´s retail sector, in International Journal of Manpower, 36 (5), 694710.  Link

Edquist, Harald (2011). Intangible investment and the Swedish manufacturing and service sector paradox. IFN Working Paper No. 863. Link

Lindbeck, Assar (2011). Comment on Skedinger: Employment consequences of employment protection legislation". Nordic Economic Policy Review, 2 (1), 8590. Link

Skedinger, Per (2011). Employment consequences of employment protection legislation. Nordic Economic Policy Review, 2 (1), 4583. Link

Andersson, Fredrik (2010). On the cost-vs-quality tradeoff in make-or-buy decisionsWorking Paper 2010:2. Department of Economics, Lund University. Link

Adermon, Adrian and Che-Yuan Liang (2010). Piracy, music and movies: A natural experiment. IFN Working Paper No. 854. Published as Piracy and music sales: The effects of an anti-piracy law, in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 105, 90106, 2014. Link

Lindqvist, Erik (2010). Height and leadership. IFN Working Paper No. 835. Published in Review of Economics and Statistics, 94 (4), 11911196, 2012. Link

Lindqvist, Erik (2010). Planned treatment and outcomes in residential youth care: Evidence from Sweden. IFN Working Paper No. 834. Published in Children and Youth Services Review, 33 (1), 2127, 2011. Link

Andersson, Fredrik (2009). "Make-or-buy Decisions and the Manipulability of Performance Measures". IFN Working Paper No. 815. Published in The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, 11 (1), (Advances), Article 23, 2011. Link

Edquist, Harald (2009). "Can Investment in Intangibles Explain the Swedish Productivity Boom in the 1990s?" IFN Working Paper No. 809. Published in Review of Income and Wealth, 57 (4), 658–682, 2011 Link

Tåg, Joacim (2009). "Competing Platforms and Third Party Application Developers," Communication & Strategies, Vol. 74, 95-114. Link

Lindqvist, Erik and Roine Vestman (2009). "The Labor Market Returns to Cognitive and Noncognitive Ability: Evidence from the Swedish Enlistment". IFN Working Paper No. 794. Published in American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3 (1), 101-128, 2011. Link

Tåg, Joacim (2009). "Paying to Remove Advertisements." IFN Working Paper No. 789. Published in Information Economics and Policy,  21 (4), 245-252. Link

Edquist, Harald (2009). "How Much does Sweden Invest in Intangible Assets?" IFN Working Paper No. 785. Link

Andersson, Fredrik (2009). "A Trickle-Down Theory of Incentives with Applications to Privatization and Outsourcing." IFN Working Paper No. 784.

Mörk, Eva, Anna Sjögren and Helena Svaleryd (2009). "Cheaper Child Care, More Children." IFN Working Paper No. 782. Published as "Childcare costs and the demand for children — evidence from a nationwide reform" in Journal of Population Economics, 26 (1), 33-65, 2013.

Skedinger, Per (2008). "Sweden: A Minimum Wage Model in Need of Modification?" IFN Working Paper No. 774.

Elinder, Mikael, Henrik Jordahl and Panu Poutvaara (2008). "Selfish and Prospective: Theory and Evidence of Pocketbook Voting." IFN Working Paper No. 770. Published as "Promises, Policies and Pocketbook Voting", European Economic Review, 75 (April), 177-194, 2015. Link

Lindqvist, Erik (2008). "Privatization of Credence Goods: Theory and Evidence from Service Contracting." IFN Working Paper No. 750.

Tåg, Joacim (2008). "Efficiency and the provision of open platforms." IFN Working Paper No. 748.

Tåg, Joacim (2008). "Open versus closed platforms." IFN Working Paper No. 747.

Friberg, Richard, Pehr-Johan Norbäck and Lars Persson (2008). "Privatization, Investment and Ownership Efficiency." IFN Working Paper No. 744.

Hoekman, Bernard (2008). "The General Agreement on Trade in Services: Doomed to Fail? Does it Matter?" Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, 295-318 (paper commissioned for the IFN conference "Globalization of the Production of Services").

Norbäck, Per-Johan and Lars Persson (2008). "Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions Policy in Service Markets." IFN Working Paper No. 74. Published in Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, 2008, 269-293.

Keith Maskus (2008). "The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Services." Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, 247-267 (paper commissioned for the IFN conference "Globalization of the Production of Services").

Markusen, James and Bridget Strand (2008). "Offshoring of Business Services in Small Open Economies: Toward a General-Equilibrium Modeling Approach." Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, 231-246 (paper commissioned for the IFN conference "Globalization of the Production of Services").

Jensen, Bradford (2008). "Trade in High-Tech Services." Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, 181-197 (paper commissioned for the IFN conference "Globalization of the Production of Services").

Lindqvist, Erik (2008). "Will Privatization Reduce Costs?" IFN Working Paper No. 736.

Economides, Nicholas och Joacim Tåg (2008). "Network Neutrality on the Internet: A Two-sided Market Analysis". IFN Working Paper No. 727. Information Economics and Policy, vol 24 (2), 91-104, 2012. 

Edquist, Harald (2007). "Parallel Development? Productivity Growth Following Electrification and the ICT Revolution." IFN Working Paper No. 714. Published as "Parallel Development? Productivity Growth Following the Diffusion of Electric Motors and ICT." Scandinavian Economic History Review, 59 (1), 29-47, 2011.

Skedinger, Per (2007). "The Design and Effects of Collectively Agreed Minimum Wages: Evidence from Sweden." IFN Working Paper No. 700.

Davis, Steven J. and Magnus Henrekson (2007). "Economic Performance and Work Activity in Sweden After the Crises of the Early 1990s." IFN Working Paper No. 687. Published in Richard M. Freeman, Birgitta Swedenborg and Robert Topel (eds.), Reforming the Welfare State – Recovery and Beyond in Sweden. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Svensson, Roger (2007). "Knowledge Transfer to Emerging Markets via Consulting Projects." Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 32, No. 5, 545-559.

Skedinger, Per (2006). "Minimum Wages and Employment in Swedish Hotels and Restaurants." Labour Economics, Vol. 13, No. 2, 259–290.

Stennek, Johan and Thomas Tangerås (2006). "Competition vs. Regulation in Mobile Telecommunications." IFN Working Paper No. 685.


Books and Chapters in Books

Ek, Simon, Mats Hammarstedt and Per Skedinger (2020). Enkla jobb och kunskaper i svenska – nycklar till integration? Center for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), Stockholm.

Elert, Niklas, Magnus Henrekson and Mikael Stenkula (2017), Institutional Reform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship – An Agenda for Europe.​ Springer International Publishing. Link

Wennström, Johan (2017). Market, State, and Morality: Two Studies of How Left and Right Undermined Moral Motivation in the Swedish School System. Licentiate dissertation, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, thesis No. 122. Linköping: Linköping University.

Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel (2016). Regulation and Funding of Independent Schools: Lessons from Sweden. Simon Fraser Institute. Link (Executive Summary)

Glenngård, Anna Häger (2015). The Swedish health care system 2015. In E. Mossialos, M. Wenzl, R. Osborn and C. Anderson (eds.), International Profiles of Health Care Systems, 2015. New York (NY): The Commonwealth Fund. 

Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel (2015). Real Finnish Lessons – The true story of an education superpower. London, UK: Centre for Policy Studies.

Sahlgren, Gabriel H., ed. (2014), Tests Worth Teaching To: Incentivising Quality in Qualifications and Accountability. London, UK: Centre for Market Reform of Education.

Orth, Matilda (2012). Entry, Competition and Productivity in Retail. Doctoral Dissertation in Economics. Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg.

Economides, Nicholas and Joacim Tåg (2011). "Network Neutrality and Network Management Regulation: Quality of Service, Price Discrimination, and Exclusive Contracts." IFN Working Paper No. 890. Forthcoming in Ian Brown (ed.), Research Handbook on Governance of the Internet, Edward Elgar, 2012.

Jordalh, Henrik (2010). "Privatization: Is dismantling public authority and international trend?" In M. Melin (ed), The IXth International Ombudsman Institute World Conference. The Parliamentary Ombudsmen – JO.

Davis, Steven J. and Magnus Henrekson (2010). "Economic Performance and Work Activity in Sweden After the Crises of the Early 1990s." In Richard M. Freeman, Birgitta Swedenborg and Robert Topel (eds), Reforming the Welfare State – Recovery and Beyond in Sweden. Chicago: University of Chicago Pres.

Skedinger, Per (2010). ”Sweden: A Minimum Wage Model in Need of Modification.” In Vaughan-Whitehead, D (ed), The Minimum Wage Revisited in the Enlarged EU, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA, US.

Skedinger, Per (2010). Employment Protection Legislation. Evolution, Effects, Winners and Losers. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA, US.

Tåg, Joacim (2008). Essays on Platforms: Business Strategies, Regulation and Policy in Telecommunications, Media and Technology Industries. PhD Thesis. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki.


Popular Science and Policy-oriented Reports


Heller-Sahlgren, Gabriel and Henrik Jordahl (2019). Knowledge-based Schooling for Prosperity - The Impact of Education Reforms on Swedish Economic Growth. Stockholm: The Confederation of Swedish Enterprise. Link

Maican Florin and Matilda Orth (2019). Deregulating retail: The hidden impact of a lower bar to entry. IFN Newsletter No. 2, 2019. Link

Henrekson, Magnus and Sebastian Jävervall (2017), Educational performance in Swedish shools is plummeting – What are the facts?​ Stockholm: The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, IVA. Link

Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel (2016), Who’s to produce and who’s to choose. Research Report 10, Centre for the Study of Market Reform of Education. Link

Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel (2016), Regulation and funding of independent schools: Lessons from Sweden. Vancouver, BC: Simon Fraser Institute. Link

Jordahl, Henrik (2015). "Promise voters to pad their wallets, and they will listen". IFN Newsletter, No. 2, 2015. Link

Jordahl, Henrik (2010), "Privatization: Is Dismantling Public Authority an International Trend?" IFN Policy Paper No. 41.

Stennek, Johan and Thomas Tangerås (2007). "Better Regulation of Mobile Telecommunications." SIEPS European Policy Analysis No. 1, 2007.

Skedinger, Per (2020). Reglering av minimilöner på EU-nivå – rätt väg att gå? Europapolitisk analys, Svenska institutet för europapolitiska studier (Sieps), Stockholm.


Other Publications

For other publications in Swedish, see the corresponding Swedish page.


International cooperation

Visiting researchers

Collaborating with others is essential for IFN as a research institute. Our researchers co-author articles with colleagues from other institutes, and many also teach at various universities and colleges.

As part of our extensive program of guest researchers, leading international researchers visit the institute. The visitors present and pursue their research as well as interact and cooperate with researchers at IFN.

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